ISSN Number

ISSN: 2147-9690

Turkish Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology
Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2014)

Using Fuzzy Hopfield Neural Network for Diagnosis of the Hepatitis Disease

Mehdi Neshata, Azra Masoumib, Mina Rajabic, Hassan Jafarid

aDepartment of Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan Branch, Shirvan, Iran
bDepartment of Software Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan Branch, Shirvan, Iran
cDepartment of Nursing sciences, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan Branch, Shirvan, Iran
dDepartment of Hardware Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan Branch, Shirvan, Iran


Nowadays, computational intelligence is frequently used in diagnosis and determination of the severity of various diseases. In fact, different tools of computational intelligence help physicians as an assistant to diagnose with fewer errors. In this article, a fuzzy Hopfield neural network has been used for determination of severity of the famous disease of hepatitis. This disease is one of the most common and dangerous diseases which endangers the lives of millions of people every year. Diagnosing this disease has always been a serious challenge for physicians and thus we hope this study to be helpful. The data was extracted from UCI and it has 19 fields and 155 records. After training and testing the fuzzy Hopfield neural network and the comparison of its performance with various neural networks Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) structure trained by standard back propagation, Radial Basis Function (RBF) network structure trained by OLS algorithm, GRNN, BNNF, BNND and HNN  , it was found that it has a good performance and was able to diagnose the severity of hepatitis with 92.05% accuracy.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, Neural network, Fuzzy Hopfield neural network, Hepatitis, Diagnosis disease

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A Statistical Evaluation of Civil Engineering Education in Turkey in terms of Value Engineering Concepts

Gülçağ Albayraka, İlker Özdemira and Uğur Albayraka

aEskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering


The studies that have been made to ensure the quality of engineering education accelerate all over the world and also in Turkey. Not only the cheapest or the most profitable solutions but also the optimal solutions which respond to demands of the students, who can be defined as customers of teaching activities, should be investigated for more valuable and qualifying engineering education. For this reason, the student's needs and consequently teaching strategies within the scope of value engineering have to be evaluated. In this study a survey was applied on 301 undergraduate students from 6 different civil engineering departments. Scientific development of the faculty and the department, quality of lectures and transportation opportunities of the city etc. were investigated. Surveying results were statistically evaluated and the assessments have been made about the higher education institutions utilizing by value engineering principles. According to the results, civil engineering education seems to be lacking suitable basis, physical places and equipment, except for a few qualified universities.

Key words Classification of universities, Scientific capacity, Student satisfaction, Student survey.

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An investigation on Titania formation with Microwave Heat Treatment from Red sediment placer Ilmenite

Satya Sai Srikanta, P S Mukherjeeb, R Bhima Raoc

aAssistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering SRM University, Modinagar, Ghaziabad, 201204, India
bChief Scientist, IMMT-CSIR, Bhubaneswar 751013, India
cPrincipal, Aryan Institute of Engineering and Technology,  BPUT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India


The badlands topography of Nolia Nuagam Village, Ganjam District, Odisha, possesses red sediments. The typical red sediment fluvial placer deposit contain on average 83.2% total heavy minerals (THM), out of which 78.2% are ilmenite. The other heavy minerals contain sillimanite 4.9%,  zircon 0.8%, rutile 0.6%, garnet 0.7%, monazite and other minerals are present in small quantities. The quartz containing 12.1% by weight is the major gangue mineral. The ilmenite concentrate recovered using wet high-intensity magnetic separator followed by high tension separator from the THM concentrate which can be used in titanium pigment and iron-steel industries.

There are many approaches to recover titania from ilmenite mineral. Reduction of ilmenite and recovery of titania slag from conventional furnace or plasma process is one of the approaches. Microwave energy has potential for the efficient heating of minerals. On applying the electromagnetic field in microwave furnace, the mineral sample heat at different rates. Minerals or materials, which couple to microwave energy are called dielectrics and many valuable minerals are found to be dielectric. The placer ilmenite mineral is one which also shows good dielectric heating characteristics. In this present investigation, the effect of microwave reduction of oxidized ilmenite is attempted by using the microwave sintering furnace. The graphitic carbon as a heating agent is used for reduction of ilmenite. The results of preliminary investigations reveal that there is a titania phase formation by using microwave sintering furnace from oxidized ilmenite. These observations are confirmed from XRD studies and SEM -image mapping.

Keywords: Red sediments, Microwave heat energy, Ilmenite, Coupling agent, XRD, Image mapping.

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Uncertainties On Free Vibration Of Inhomogeneous Orthotropic Reinforced Concrete Plates

Vahid L. Shahsavar a and Samira Tofighib

a L. S., V. PhD. Student of civil engineering, AZUAC, Azerbaijan University Of Architecture and Construction, corresponding address: No 34, Zaal St., Roodaki Av., Urmia, IRAN
b T. S. MSc. Student of civil engineering, Azad University of Mahabad.


Analyzing the nearly collapsed and broken structures gives a good insight in the possible architectural and engineering design mistakes, faults in the detailing and the mismanagement of the construction by the building contractors. Harmful vibration effects of construction operations occur frequently. The background reviews have demonstrated that the problem of vibration serviceability of long-span concrete floors in buildings is complex and interdisciplinary in nature. In public buildings, floor vibration control is required due to meet Serviceability Limit States that ensure comfort of users of a building. In industrial buildings, machines are often placed on floors. Machines generate vibrations of various frequencies which are transferred to supporting constructions. Precision machines require a stable floor with defined and known dynamic characteristics. In recent years there has been increasing interest in the motion of elastic bodies whose material properties (density, elastic moduli, etc.) are not constant, but vary with position, perhaps in a random manner. Concrete is a non-homogeneous and anisotropic material. Modeling the mechanical behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC) is still one of the most difficult challenges in the field of structural engineering.

One of the several methods for determining of the dynamic modulus of elasticity of engineering materials is the vibration frequency procedure. In this method, the required variables except modulus of elasticity accurately and certainty determined.

In this research, uncertainly analysis of free vibration of inhomogeneous orthotropic reinforced concrete plates has been investigated. Due to the numerous outputs obtained, software package has been written in Matlab and analysis on the data and drawing related charts have been done.

Keywords: Free Vibration, Concrete Plates, Orthotropic and Inhomogeneous Behavior, Uncertainly Analysis

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How Construction Errors Affecting the Bearing Capacity of the Concrete Beams? Inelastic Deflection of Concrete I-Beams

Hussein Khalilimarda

aPhD. Student of Civil Engineering, AZUAC, Azerbaijan University of Architecture and Construction, Baku, Azerbaijan


Reinforced concrete I-beams are widely used in bridge construction. The span length to beam height ratio in these decks is sometimes between 15 and 30. Due to the widespread utilization of these bridges and their heavy traffic loads, special attention must be directed at recognizing the behaviors that lead to construction errors associated with these structures. Because of various construction and environmental factors, construction faults might result in concrete quality or during concrete placement which can consequently lead to inhomogeneities in beam sections. This means that concrete density and compressive strength in the beam cross section might deteriorate along the section height.

Extensive research has been conducted on the non-linear and inhomogeneous behavior of concrete beams. However, few researchers have specifically addressed density and compressive strength variations along beam cross sections. The present research is aimed at estimating from elastic material parameters, the concrete I-beam inelastic deflection resulting from inhomogeneous behavior along the beam cross sectional height. The behavior of the beam under study was checked by comparing its relevant parameters with the results obtained from the OpenSees Software and the method proposed in the Concrete Code ACI318. Excellent agreement was observed in both cases. Moreover, a value of unity was proposed for parameter “n” in the relation set forth by Branson in the Concrete Code ACI318 for estimating section cracking moment in long span I-beams.

Keywords: Inelastic Deflection, Concrete Beam, Inhomogeneity, Cracked section, Construction errors

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Reverse Engineering In Modeling Of Aircraft Propeller Blade- First Step To Product Optimization

M. Yasir Anwara, FarrukhMazhara, ShahidIkramullaha

aNational University of Sciences and Technology, H-12 Islamabad, Pakistan


Propeller aircrafts have seen many up and downs throughout their usage in aviation history. Due to current economic recession and fuel hikes, propeller aircraft are yet again a choice for aerial transport and thus re-emerged as an active area for future research. On modern aircraft old Aluminum type propellers are being replaced with Fiber Reinforced Composite propellers. On the other hand owing to their reliability, strength and integrity, Aluminum propellers are still being used in military aircrafts. One of the challenges that users of these aircraft type have to deal with is the non-availability of the engineering drawings of these propellers. Thus, it is practically impossible to carry out any study, research or modification on such propellers in the absence of correct CAD data. This article proposes a methodology wherein a CAD model of C-130 aircraft propeller blade are to be constructed using reverse engineering techniques. The CAD model to be developed would help in the future aerodynamic as well as structural analyses; this includes investigating structural integrity and studying fluid dynamics of propeller blades. Different steps involved in this process have been discussed; starting from laser scanning to getting a point cloud data and subsequently generating CAD model in a commercial CAD software. It was then imported in to analysis software where quality surfaces mesh is generated, using all tetrahedral elements. The purpose is to prepare a meshed model for future computational analysis including CFD (computational fluid dynamics) and FE (Finite Element) analysis.

Keywords Reverse Engineering, Cloud data, Laser Scanning, CAD modeling, Propeller Blade

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Experimental Study of Ti-Ni-Nb Novel Shape Memory Alloys

T.A.Tabish*, N.Alia, A. Aslama, N. Abbasa, S. Gashkoria, T.Z.Buttb

aInstitute of Advanced Materials, Bahauddin Zakariya University, 60800, Multan. Pakistan
bFaculty of Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, 54590, Lahore, Pakistan


The microstructure, x ray diffractive study and simultaneous thermal analysis of the novel Ti50Ni48Nb2, Ti50Ni46Nb4, Ti50Ni44Nb6, Ti50Ni42Nb8, Ti50Ni40Nb10 and Ti50Ni38Nb12 shape memory alloys were investigated. The dominant phase is titanium nickelide TiNi (B2 phase) intermetallic compound with the ordered bcc CsCl lattice. There is a significant content of the bcc niobium phase. Along with these phases, it contains a strong line of the fcc Ti2Ni phase. STA results shows that there is no transformation change in this range of temperature. Due to the addition of Nb decreases the transformation temperature, so that these alloys have sub-zero transformation temperature. To find out the transformation temperature of these alloys further investigation is required. The identification of the phases in the Ti–Ni–Nb alloys shows that the dominant phase is TiNi (B2 phase) intermetallic compound, which is seen as coarse gray grains of rounded or dendrite shapes. In the present study Grain boundaries are decorated with white rounded pure niobium inclusions. A softer structural component, namely, the (Ti, Ni, Nb) eutectic, contains isolated dark gray inclusions of nickelide Ti2Ni alloyed with niobium.

Keywords: Shape memory alloy, Ti-Ni-Nb, X-ray diffraction, Microstructure, STA

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Data Mining Applications and Techniques for Handling Big Data: A Survey

Jitendra Singha, Monika Johria, Yashikab

a Assistant Professor, Department of CSE, SRM University, Delhi NCR Campus, India
b M.Tech (CSE), Department of CSE, SRM University, Delhi NCR Campus, India


In this new era of technology, dealing with a large amount of data and knowledge discovery in databases from large datasets has been a focusing theme in Data Mining. Data Mining is useful for analysis of large amount of data and drawing useful information from underlying large data files that contains Big Data. Several techniques are used for effective classification and clustering of underlying data nowadays. In this paper, an overview of new and rapidly emerging techniques for effective dealing with large databases applications of Data mining in various research and practical domains for further directions is prospected.

Keywords: Knowledge Discovery in Databases, Data Mining Technique, Data Mining Applications

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